Interfaces of the most widely differing kinds are in use nowadays, in the most widely differing devices. If it is intended that these devices are to be connected, modules are needed for converting from one format into another. Here, too, there is a wide selection for moving from one format into another defined format. One particular format, which is already regarded as very old, is the serial interface. There is a huge range of end devices which offer interfaces of this type, and that in turn creates the demand for ICs which are capable of connecting more modern formats to serial types.
There are accordingly modules which convert PCI (parallel) to several serial interfaces. If the more modern PCIe (serial) interfaces are already being used, there are also a number of ICs available which can again convert to a variety of serial formats and also to USB. If the customer already has an USB interface, then there are also ICs which can in turn convert to serial or also to parallel interfaces. All these modules end in the digital area of the respective interface concerned.
With serial interfaces in particular, however, the actual physical connection still needs driver modules. The predominant types in this case are RS232 or RS485 transceiver modules. And we have a rich range to choose from.
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